The content of our SPSS Course
Tests in SPSS


Our online SPSS tutorials

              show you how to use this software
                          so you can analyse your data with great ease. 

Detailed information

Module 1: How to work with SPSS

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Reading the data from Excel

As a start you you need to have data. Sometimes the data are gathered or delivered in Excel. It is easy to read the data from Excel into SPSS, if the file meets certain conditions. In this video I show you how to read the data from Excel into SPSS and how to handle when problems occur. ==> Watch this video >>>
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The SPSS codebook

After entering the data in SPSS, a lot of settings have to be controlled. It might take some time to check and adjust them, but it will make working with SPSS a lot easier and faster. In this video I show you how these settings should be and how to adjust them when necessary. ==> Watch this video >>>
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The SPSS Syntax file

It is logical that SPSS has a data file. It is logical it writes the output in a separate file too. But what fore a syntax file is needed? In this video I explain to you what a syntax file is, how it is created and how to make use of it. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Searching in your data

Often, especially in the beginning, you have to search for certain data. An outlier might have to be found, or a specific value in a list of numbers. In this video I show you how to search, find and replace values in your dataset. Besides that I teach you how to find variabels in a long variable list. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Recoding the values of variables

I never did a research in which the data didn't have to be recoded. In this video I show you how this can be done. SPSS has even two commands to recode the data. Both do the same job. However, the result is different and sometime the first one is preferred and sometimes the other one. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Making computations

SPSS is really an amazing tool to make calculations with. And often you need to make calculations in your research. In this video I show you how to make calculations with variables. I will show you a lot of tricks to make the calculations with great ease. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Merging Files (adding data)

Sometimes data are stored in two different files. In SPSS it is very easy to add the dat in one file to the other. Two main types of merging data files can be distinguished. One of them has two subtypes. In this video you will learn all about that and I show you how the work is dome in SPSS. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Aggregating data

Aggregating the data is useful when the data of individuals are needed on a higher level. For instance, the data of all football players in the Europe league are scored, but the analyses are done on the teams.  In this video I show you how to aggregate the data. ==> Watch this video >>>

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The date and time wizard

With the Date and Time Wizard it is easy to compute the age of a person at the dat of administration or the time spend in a hospital. In this video I show you how this works. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Selecting cases

Sometimes you want to analyse the data on a specific group, for instance only the male respondents or the female. It is not necessary to create separate datasets for this. It is very easy to conduct analyses in SPSS on specific groups. In this video I show you how this can be accomplished. ==> Watch this video >>>

Module 2: Descriptive statistics

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Frequencies, means, standard deviation ......

Before any statistical analysis is performed the variables to be used should be described. This is done  with the command Frequencies. This command can perform a lot more. The mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis can be calculated, a graph can be made and the quartile, quintile or any other breaking points  can be calculated. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Testing on normality

Many statistical test are based on the assumption that the variables are normally distributed. In this video I show you how to test this assumption in SPSS. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Multiple response

Multiple response questions require a special technique to analyse the answers adequately. This video shows you how to handle. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Testing a frequency distribution

To test representativity often a distribution of the gathered response should be compared with the distribution of the population. This test can be used for that. I think that this test should be used more often. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Contingency tables (crosstabs)

A contingency table is a ommon way to analyze the relationship between two nominal variables. In this video I show you how to create such a table in SPSS, the statistical test that can be performend on this table and how to interpret the results. It isn't difficult, yet you need to know where to find the commands, where the results are found and how to interpret these results. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Correlation (Pearson, Spearman, Kendall)

In this video I show you how to retrieve a correlation table from SPSS and how to make a correct APA table from it in Excel. To interpret the result a scatter plot can be made and I'll show you how to make SPSS draw a regression line through this scatter plot. ==> Watch this video >>>

Module 3: Testing Instruments

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Factor Analysis

When a construct is measured very often a list of questions are used. To test wether the construct has been measured validly factor analysis has to be performed. In this video I show you how this has to be done in SPSS. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Reliability - Cronbachs alpha

After performing factor analysis the construct is tested on reliability. The most common way to do this is by computing Cronbachs alpha.In this video I show you how to run this test in SPSS. Besides that, I will show you the options you have in SPSS to find out how a low Cronbachs alpha can be increased when it is too low. ==> Watch this video >>>

Module 4: Univariate tests

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Two samples t-test (t-test groups)

If you want to find out wether two groups differ from each other, often the means of the groups are compared. To test the difference between two means, a t-test has to be performed. In SPSS this test is called the independent samples t-test. In this video I explain how to perform this test in SPSS and explain the output SPSS produces. ==> Watch this video >>>

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ANOVA (three ways to perform an ANOVA in SPSS)

In this video I show you three ways to perform an ANOVA in SPSS. An ANOVA test is by itself very basic. Extra information is needed. How to retrieve this information and how to interpret the results is show in the second video. ==> Watch this video >>>

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One-sample t-test

Some questions are simple, but sometime hard to answer. For instance: Do the Chinese earn more than € 1000,- per month on average? This is called a one-sample t-test.  Collecting the data may take some time. The test is simple and can be done in minutes. In this video I show you how this test  is performed in SPSS. ===> Watch this video >>>

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t-test pairs

Groups can be compared, but features or characteristics too. These characteristics can be measured at the same time, but a lapse in time can be possible too. In this video I explain clearly how the data should look like to perform a paired samples t-test. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Mann-Whitney U-test

With a MW U-test you check whether two groups differ from each other on an aspect that has been measured at ordinal level. Sometimes the MW U-test is replaced by the t-test for groups, and sometimes the other way around. The tests are similar, but not interchangeable. In this video I explain in detail how to perform a MW U-test in SPSS. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Kruskal-Wallis test

The Kruskal-Wallis test is an alternative for the RM-ANOVA. In this video I tell you the requirements for this test and how the Kruskal-Wallis test should be performed in SPSS. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Wilcoxon test

The Wilcoxon test is an alternative for the paired samples t-test. Both tests can be applied on the same data. In this video I show you how to perform a Wilcoxon test in SPSS. ==> Watch this video >>>

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Friedman test

The Friedman test isn't a widely used test. More often a RM-ANOVA is performed. In this video I explain when this test should be used, how it has to be run in SPSS and how to read the outcome of this test. ==> Watch this video >>>

Module 5: Multivariate tests

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MANOVA

A MANOVA has two or more grouping variables and one independent variable. The test is used to determine whether the grouping variables have a separate and a combined  influence. In this video I teach you how to perform this test in SPSS and which options you have to check to interpret the results. ==> Watch this video >>>
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ANCOVA

An ANCOVA is an ANOVA with one or more grouping variables and one or more continuous variable. For this the command General Liner Model can be used. With this analysis a regression analysis with dummies can be performed too. Perhaps it is even simpler. However it has some disadvantages. ==> Watch this video >>>

Module 6: Regression

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OLS Regression

This is the usual way to perform regression analysis. In this video I show you how to perform univariate regression analysis, multiple regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Testing the assumptions

To perform a regression analysis some requirements should be met. In this video I show you how to test on collinearity, outliers, homoscedasticity and independency on the error variance. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Dummies in regression

Regression analysis is basically only allowed with continuous variables. However dummies can be added without any problem. I will show that this test result is equal to a t-test for groups. Furthermore I explain how to handle nominal (non dichotomous) and ordinal data in regression analysis and how this can be analyzed with General Linear Model too. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Stepwise procedures

SPSS has several procedures to test or create theories with regression. In this video I show you which procedure that are and how they have to be used. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Mediation

Mediation is a testing two theories with a certain kind of regression anlaysis. In this video I show you how this can be done in SPSS. ==> Watch this video >>>
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Moderation

Moderation is another way of testing theories. Even several visions can be distinguished. In this video I explain some visions on moderation and how they can be tested in SPSS. ==> Watch this video >>>
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